Baby's psychomotor development it is understood as the acquisition and progressive consolidation of skills in the relational and motor fields. In the first year of life, each baby will experience different situations that will lead to the maturation of his Central Nervous System (CNS). This maturation will translate into new neural connections, which will allow the baby to have new motor strategies to relate to the world around him. It should be noted that psychomotor learning models are variable in rhythm and mode.
Baby from 0 to 3 months
During this period, the baby's big goal is to get his head under control. Shortly after birth, he is able to turn his head to turn it on its side when stretched upside down, as a protective turn to keep his mouth and nose free. Around the month of life, he will hold it upright when the parents hold him in front of them, since the proprioceptive and auditory stimulation he receives is greater. Babies' 75% reacts to their mother's voice and smile around 2 months of age (According to statistical data from the Haizea-Llevant Development Table (1991). Study conducted with a sample of 1702 babies from 0 to 24 months in Catalonia and another 817 in the Basque Country).
In order to maintain control over your head you will need strong muscles at the cervical level. Suction movement (either from the bottle or from the mother's breast) will strengthen these muscles and will serve as training. Babies' 75% will be able to raise their head from the tummy position by resting their forearms on the floor at 3 months of age1. The remaining 25% will be done a little before the 5th month.
Over the 3 months of life of our baby, we can see how his spine is being molded. At birth, the baby's spine is shaped like a "C" that faces his tummy, known as kyphosis. As they strengthen the control of the head, it is observed that at the cervical level the curvature is reversed and the so-called cervical lordosis appears. This cervical lordosis Helps keep head upright later.
It is necessary to offer the baby moments of activity in the prone or prone position. Showing him toys that catch his attention and that he tries to reach will encourage the baby to work the musculature of the entire spine, especially that of the cervical area. Whenever we place the baby in a prone position, it must be under our supervision and in an active state.
At about 3 months, the baby begins the gesture of putting his hands together in the midline in the upright or supine position. When presented with a rattle, the baby brings his hands to the center of his body, trying to reach the object with both hands at the same time. This supposes for the baby an important work of his corporal scheme. If instead of the rattle, we use the mother's face and voice as a claim, the stimulus will be much greater. Spontaneously, the 3-month-old baby also starts looking at his own hands.
Baby from 3 to 6 months
At this stage, gaze control will be consolidated. The baby is able to follow an object visually, whether the object moves vertically or horizontally. This fact causes him to start being curious about something he sees down there: his feet. In addition, between 4 and 6 months he already directs his hands towards the objects actively. All this will lead us to play catch feet when stretched out on the back (in the supine position). With this game, prepare the leg muscles to be able to sit in the very near future. In order to maintain stable sitting (sitting position), an elastic and flexible hamstring and adductor muscle is required. Requires prior stretching of the hamstring and adductor muscles.
In the tummy position, the baby will continue to progress toward spinal extension. At 6 months, he will be able to lift his head and part of the trunk off the ground with the support of his hands. Likewise, he will begin to make weight changes laterally, between one hand and the other. This will allow you to hold a toy with one hand while maintaining body support on the other.
At the language level, with 4 months the laughter begins ... out loud! And he also attends to the conversations that take place around him, occasionally looking at the interlocutors.
Baby from 6 to 9 months
This stage will be defined by the consolidation of the sitting position. Skirt sets to stimulate trunk control and strengthen the erector spine muscles are an important stimulus here.. For example, singing the 5 little wolfs while we have the baby sitting in front of us, on our thighs, would be part of a good training.
- Sitting on the parents' lap.
- Sitting on the ground with the support of your hands in front and your legs stretched out to increase the base of support.
- From sitting, the weight changes between one hand and the other begin. Able to free one hand to manipulate a toy.
- Start supporting your hands laterally to avoid "tipping over" (lateral parachute reaction).
- You can free your hands to play with something from sitting.
Over 8 months the baby is already stable sitting and start to be curious about what's up there. Which will take you to do the first steps with standing or standing. At the end of the 9th month of life, it will be supported standing with posterior support on a wall or furniture.
It will perform flips (the popular “croquette”) as a means of movement. A perfect opportunity to work on the coordination between one body and the other, and dissociate the movements of one limb from the other.
At the level of manipulation, objects will be passed from one hand to the other. It will move objects up and down to make noise. If we put a scarf over his face, he will remove it without help to reveal himself. Start playing games to find an object.
Regarding language, at this stage he will go from babbling to repeating some adult sounds and saying syllables.
Baby from 9 to 12 months
By 10 months, the baby will be able to make the change from lying down to sitting position without help. It is a transfer that requires significant coordination between the four limbs, the trunk and the head.
Once the baby has consolidated his balance in sitting, the arms serve as a protective extension and supports them further and further. This causes him to carry part of the body weight from the buttocks to his hands, which leads him to reach the quadruped or crawling position. Not all babies crawl, but those who do develop postural adjustments in all four
extremities. Children who do not crawl start by crawling in a sitting position, or simply start walking earlier.
At 11 months of age the 95% of the babies are supported in standing with support, according to him Llevant-Haizea Study. This means that they will be able to hold on if we stand them on a wall. They may even begin to take solo steps. But it will not be until a few months later that they will achieve the great challenge of walking autonomously.
At this stage the baby begins to point with the index finger to make demands on the parents. Hold the clamp between your thumb and forefinger to manipulate small objects. And he loves to play with getting objects out of a container.
He is able to imitate gestures, like those of the songs that his mother sings to them. Understand the meaning of some words and recognize their name. You also begin to understand the prohibitions.
 Pediatric Physiotherapy. Macías, L. Fagoaga, J. Mac Graw-Hill Interamericana.